Antigua Shire (1880-1917), south-west of Maryborough, was on the western side of the Mary River, southwards from the Maryborough-Biggenden Road. Seldom more than 5 km wide, the shire had an area of 360 sq km. It was named after the Antigua sugar plantation, which itself was presumably named after the sugar-producing Caribbean island.

The Shire's main town was Yengarie, where a boiling-down works was established in 1866, later becoming a meat-extract factory and abattoir. The market for its products expanded greatly when Maryborough became a starting point for prospectors going to the Gympie gold field (1867). A few years later a large sugar factory was constructed at Yengarie, the district's main processor until the Maryborough mill was opened in 1896. The railway (1891) ran south to Gympie, more or less through the length of the shire.

Antigua Shire's census populations were:

Census DatePopulation
18811054
1911709

In 1917 most of the shire was united with several others to form Burrum Shire.