Archerfield, an industrial and residential suburb, is 12 km south of central Brisbane. It was named after the Archerfield pastoral station, an area of 14,000 acres acquired by Michael Durack in 1881. The Duracks later pioneered the Kimberley pastoral industry in Western Australia.

Although situated near Rocklea and the Salisbury railway line, Archerfield was a rural area in 1929 when the Commonwealth government acquired about 260 ha for Brisbane's airport. The Queensland aero club based its headquarters there, and Qantas began its regular UK air service from Archerfield in 1934. The airport had an important role during World War II, beginning with an RAAF squadron in 1939. It later had the Empire Air Training Scheme (1940), American B24 bombers (1942) and a large administration building and central tower.

Archerfield gave way to Eagle Farm as Brisbane's main airport in 1948, thereupon serving as an RAAF base until 1955. By the late 1950s Salisbury, Rocklea and Acacia Ridge were important industrial locations, and areas adjoining the airport became mixed industrial and residential. The airport concentrated on light-aircraft and commercial operations, with aviation training and the leasing of some allotments for warehousing and industry. In 1998 the airport was sold to a private company when it was ranked as the fifth busiest airport in Australia for numbers of aircraft movements.

Archerfield's main industry locations are at Boniface Avenue and Beaudesert Road, and in Kerry Road where Thiess Holdings was headquartered for 30 years. Amcor has a large site next to the airport, in Rocklea. The Archerfield motor speedway is also next to the airport, in Acacia Ridge. An historic cemetery, God's Acre, is on the eastern edge of the airport. Dating from 1859 it holds the remains of early families, including the Greniers who acquired part of the airport's site in 1856.

Planning identified an increased role for Archerfield airport into the future, with a proposal for a second parallel runway to cope with aircraft movements by 2031. The airport is home to one of south-east Queensland's police helicopters and various firefighting planes. A super storm in late 2014 destroyed a number of light aircraft at Archerfield.

Archerfield's census populations have been:

Census DatePopulation
1976913
1981785
1986652
2006580
2011513