Rockville, a residential suburb, is two km north-west of central Toowoomba. It was named after the Rockville farmlets estate, itself named after Rockville House. It is situated west of the railway line from Toowoomba to Dalby, and the nearest railway station is Willowburn. In 1911 the Willowburn locality had a census population of 812, the only year it was recorded.
The Rockville primary school opened in 1922 in the north of the suburb. It is next to the Leslie Wheat Research Institute. There are Anglican and Baptist churches, but the Presbyterian church has been closed. It is survived by the St Andrews private hospital, the smallest of Toowoomba's three main hospitals, with nearly 140 beds and five operating theatres. Rockville's southern boundary is the Black Gully reserve, located along a tributary of the Gowrie Creek. Its northern boundary adjoins the Baillie Henderson Hospital, a psychiatric facility, previous the Willowburn mental hospital (1890).
Rockville's census population in 2006 was 3303.