Thagoona is a residential district with outlying rural areas on the Brisbane to Toowoomba railway. Situated 13 km west of Ipswich, its immediate neighbours are Rosewood and Amberley. The name of the district seems to have originated with the opening of the railway station (1888) which was named Raeside. A change of name to Thagoona occurred soon afterwards, and the meaning or origin of the name is apparently unrecorded.

Thagoona was on coal beds stretching from Rosewood to the border of Amberley, known as the Rosewood-Walloon coalfield. The Caledonian Colliery (1889) had shafts near and east of Caledonian Park, now Thagoona's largest public reserve. There were three spur lines connecting the shafts to the main railway.

Various post office directories record about ten farmers and one or two mining personnel at Thagoona; presumably miners lived in Rosewood and travelled by train to work. At one time a directory recorded a teacher residing in Thagoona, perhaps in charge of the Mount Marrow primary school (1909-1932) about a kilometre north of the Caledonian Colliery.

Thagoona families can also have their children attend State primary schools at Rosewood and Walloon, and a State high school and a Catholic primary school at Rosewood. These towns also have shopping centres.

Thagoona has been identified as an urban growth area by Ipswich City Council. Its census populations have been:

Census DatePopulation
191156
194770
196170
200611639
2011972

1 Included residents of Mount Marrow and part of Haigslea, and is an overstatement.

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